Mar 312014

Our tzitzit t-shirt has been gaining popularity. Although some companies market it as a revolutionary new concept, it has been sold in Israel and France for close to a decade. The design is fairly similar to the very popular and now widespread Neatzit, except that the Neatzit (also known by various other names, including PerfTzitz and TrimTzitz) is meant to be worn as an undershirt, whereas the tzitzit t-shirt is just that: a t-shirt with tzitzit designed to be worn alone.

T-shirt with Tzitzit The concept was endorsed by the late Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu zt”l, the late chief rabbi of Israel, and one of the manufacturers told me the late Rabbi Eliashiv also gave his approval. According to halacha, a garment is required to have tzitzit attached if it is open more than half-way up the sides. The TzitzShirt is open almost all the way to the sleeve, but while worn the sides are closed with three discreet snaps.

Of course the tzitzit t-shirt can also be worn as an undershirt, which means you can wear it as an undershirt, and when you hit the basketball court, the tennis court, during your morning jog or just sitting in the yard on a hot day you can slip off your shirt without feeling too exposed and without having to be sans tzitzit.

We sell the tzitzit in both men’s and boys’ sizes in white, blue and gray. Black is also available, by request.

TzitzShirt for Men>>

TzitzShirt for Boys>>

Mar 182014

According to Torah law, there is no requirement for tzitzit to have 7-8-11-13 windings. The Torah says you must have one knot and one chulyah. There is a dispute in the poskim as the whether the knot comes before the chulyah or after, so we do both. The Mishnah Brurah explains that if you tie on double knot, wrap a few windings around (at least three) and tie a second double knot, you have fulfilled the mitzvah according to Torah law. He says this is what one should do if he finds himself stuck without tzitzit a short time before Shabbos begins. He then goes on to explain that there is also a requirement according to Rabbinical law to tie the tzitzit in such a way that you have one-third anaf (tied) and two-thirds ptil (loose).

Therefore when the Shulchan Aruch (11, 14) explains how to go about tying tzitzit, it makes no mention of how many windings there should be, and in fact writes that there is no set number of windings.

ואחר-כך יכררך חוט הארך סביב השבעה קצת כריכות וקושר שני פעמים זה על גב זה, וחוזר
וכורך; וכן יעשה עד שישלים לחמש קשרים כפולים וארבעה עוירים ביניהם מלאים כריכות.
אין שעור לכריכות רק שיהיו כל הכרוך והקשרים רחב ארבעה גודלים והענף שמונה גודלים

Thus the number of windings is not Torah law or even Rabbinical law, but rather a custom that developed later. Interestingly, based on the Shulchan Aruch, the Rema and the Mishnah Brurah, it seems that the one-third/two-thirds requirement, described as , is of more importance than the number of windings, but if you look at the vast majority of tzitzit you will find that they are much closer to one-fourth/three-fourths.

In fact we normally leave the tzitzit we tie for our customers one-fourth/three-fourths, because I believe if they saw one-third/two-thirds many would be somewhat alarmed and possibly disappointed. In the yeshiva world today, you often see students sporting very long tzitzit. I imagine many of them think this is very pious, when in fact it is actually a leniency.

It’s very difficult to get the windings exactly 7, exactly 8, etc. We try our best to do it within half a winding. If you are not experienced at tzitzit tying, this may be hard to discern. If you look at the tzitzit on one side, you may count 7 windings in the first section, but when you flip it around to the opposite side there are 6 or 8 windings, because there may be six-and-a-half or seven-and-a-half. (The way to count accurately is to note careful where the winding starts, note where the final winding ends and compare the location.)

Rabbi Mois Navon of the Ptil Tekhelet Association speaks of this issue as well. “The truth is that it is very difficult to get precisely three full winds when coming out of a double knot or going into a double knot,” he writes. He then argues that “the Gemara’s requirement that a chulya be 3 winds is a directive for action to be taken by the person wrapping and not necessarily a statement on how the final product is to appear.  That is to say, the tier is required to wrap the shamash around the core strings three times, this may however result in a chulya looking like two-and-a-half wraps or even three-and-a-half, depending on where the string started or ended.”

Mar 052014

A fairly significant number of our tallit and tallit katan customers who select Ptil Tekhelet tzitzit want us to tie them according to the Sephardic custom. For example, this week we received the following inquiry from a prospective techelet buyer in the US:

I am looking at new Tallit Gadol. In the past I have tied my own P’til Techelet Tzitzit but since you offer this service I would request information on your method in relation to the Sephardic or Raavad option. In particular,
- Do you use a full P’til Techelet Tzitzit when doing the “Sephardic” method (ie. not a half-white, half-techelet string), as I am sure you would under the “Raavad” method?
- What is the numerical sequence of wraps in both cases?
- Are you able to forward pictures of examples of both?


In my reply, I told David that if you do Sephardic tying, in my humble opinion you should use Rambam techelet strings.

Thank you for your inquiry. I trust you have read our techelet tying page.

Based on my understanding of halacha, if you go ahead and tie Sephardic windings, it makes most sense to use Rambam tekhelet strings so that you get seven white strings and one blue string hanging down from each corner. Of all of the Rishonim and Achronim who explicitly discuss how to tie tzitzit with techelet, the Rambam is generally considered the most authoritative.

I even know an Ashkenazi yeshiva student who ties his tzitzit with Vilna Gaon windings, but uses Rambam strings! He holds that from a halachic standpoint, the main question is how many white strings and how many blue you should have; how to do the windings is of secondary importance.

I think there is a fairly significant number of Ashkenazim who choose to tie according to the Rambam for this reason, so I would assume it applies even more so for Sephardim.

But I am not qualified to make halachic decisions, so you should really try to speak with a rav about this, though many rabbanim have not looked into techelet and techelet tying. Feel free to forward this email to a rav to see what he says. I’d be interested to get some feedback, if possible.

Regarding your question on the numerical sequence of the wraps, on a tallit gadol Sephardic tzitzit are always done 7-8-11-13, so with techelet it would be as follows:

initial double knot
1 white – 6 blue – double knot
8 blue – double knot
11 blue – double knot
12 blue – 1 white – double knot

The Gemara tells us very clearly that you always start with white and end with white, and that rule applies no matter how you do the windings.

Some of my customers know very little about tzitzit tying, so I was quite astonished by the highly erudite (and fascinating) reply David sent me the next day. The following are his remarks on the Raavad and Rambam tying methods:


Although Sephardim normally follow Rambam, I am personally in favour of the Raavad method, & just for the sake of interesting Torah discussion I will share the reason.

In Sefer HaBahir there are two potentially relevant discussions:

If it is within your tradition to read there, paragraph’s 92 & 93 become relevant.
Now, from one perspective [Rambam] it could be said to be better to have only one blue thread showing on each corner, this would indicate the “garden” is the King’s (Keter).

However, paragraph 93 discusses the role of the King’s daughter (Malchut) …”with these two signs, ‘G-d will watch you from all evil, He will safeguard your soul’ – part of the function of the reminder of the Tzitzit.”

So, as it happens, some ascribe this book to the Raavad, and his technique for tying happens to have the showing of two blue threads on each corner.

Thanks for taking the time to get back to me & providing the link & additional information. The foregoing thoughts are just for your interest & any other students of the Torah you may wish to discuss with.

With G-d’s help I will place an order with you via the website & will probably opt to tie the Tzitzit myself although I am sure your methodologies are all good & acceptable.

Yours Faithfully,

Jan 312014

When it comes to the raging debate over whether Murex trunculus is the real techelet mentioned in the Torah, it’s hard to find someone who is really objective on the issue. Many people, including some rabbanim, seem to have made up their minds for the most part, before they start “investigating” the matter.

For example, a year or two ago a Torah scholar in Bnei Brak published a booklet strongly arguing against Murex trunculus as the real techelet. While reading through it, I felt it was very clear the writer was extremely biased and presented his case in a highy selective manner. When discussing the correct color of techelet, for instance, he wrote that according to Rashi it should be a very dark blue, almost black, but neglected to mention the many opinions – including Rashi himself, elsewhere – that speak of very different shades of blue (see below). In the booklet he also claimed the chilazon is found in the Kinneret. This opinion is mentioned in the Midrash, if I’m not mistaken, but a much more accepted opinion is that the chilazon dwells in the Mediterranean.

That’s why it helps to take a look at what Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan zt”l wrote over 30 years ago in his commentary on Chumash, The Living Torah. And it’s particularly worth taking a look now, since you will find it in this week’s Torah reading, Parshas Terumah.

The verse in Shemos 25:3 lists the various materials used in the construction of the Mishkan, including techelet. Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan translates it as “sky-blue.” The shade of techelet is a matter of debate in and of itself, and Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan mentions five or six different opinions, including Rabbi Saadia Gaon, Rambam, Yosephus, Rashi and Radak.

Sometimes I get customers who ask for me to dig through my stock of Ptil Tekhelet for the darkest set I can find (or sometimes the lightest). Although there can be slight differentiation between one batch and another, for the most part they all look to me to be the same shade. However, the thin is always noticeably darker than the thick, presumably because the Murex trunculus dye penetrates better.

Rabbi Kaplan goes on to mention various points that anyone who has looked into the present-day techelet debate will recognize immediately: purpura, Murex trunculus shells found at the site of the ancient Tyrian dyeworks and the signs of the chilazon.

Dec 252013

Some 350 participants and 20 speakers are expected to take part in an international conference on techelet research on December 30 at the Menachem Begin Heritage Center in Jerusalem.

Techelet research pioneer Rabbi Herzog

Rabbi Yitzchak Halevi Herzog

The conference was initiated to mark the centennial of the late Chief Rabbi Dr. Isaac Halevi Herzog’s ground-breaking doctoral dissertation, “The Dyeing of Purple in Ancient Israel.”

Throughout the day video clips will be screened and a tekhelet dyeing station will be set up to provide hands-on demonstrations.

The conference will be streamed live, starting at 9:30 am (Israel time) at

Scheduled speakers include MK Isaac Herzog, grandson of techelet research pioneer Rabbi Yitzchak Halevi Herzog, Professor Rabbi Avraham Steinberg, Rabbi Dr. Shlomo Riskin, Supreme Court Justice Neal Hendel, Rabbi Menachem Burshtein, Rabbi Dr. Meir Soloveichik and Dr. Naama Sukenik of the Israel Antiquities Authority. The keynote speaker will be Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Hirsch Weinreb, executive vice president emeritus of the Orthodox Union.

Oct 302013

We get a considerable number of orders for tallit and tallit katan products with Yemenite/Rambam tzitzit. Many of our customers who order Rambam tzitzit are the kind of people who are likely to tie themselves, but of course to tie Rambam you really need a “mori” to show you. I was taught by a Yemenite Jew who lives nearby and used to be in my IDF reserve unit. The truth is, although he was quite patient, I wasn’t able to replicate his knots very well. Then later I went to another Yemenite down the block, who showed me a technique I found much easier to pick up.

Recently I received an email message from an intrepid customer who wants to tackle Rambam tying on his own.

Dear Sir,
I bought your tekhelet tzitzit and was told by my Rav to tie them in the Rambam style.  I’ve looked at your videos and diagrams, and though I can get most of the way, I am a bit confused at tying the first chulya.  After watching some videos, I can follow the instructions laid out by up to step 8, and after that, I begin to have issues.  This might be a weird question, but I would love if you could help me (perhaps over Skype) or show me another resource for tying the first chulya. I understand you’re busy, but my wife works in customer service and gets weird questions all the time, so my weird question is: Can you show me how to tie Rambam tekhelet tzitzit?  I’d be willing to reimburse you for your time.
Thank you,

I wish I could help CKM, but Rambam tzitzit tying is quite tricky, and obviously remote instruction only makes it harder. The problem with tying techelet according to the Rambam is that you have to get the middle chulyot tying down pat before you tackle the first and last chulyot, but of course you can’t get to the 2nd chulya without doing the first one. We posted a video on YouTube showing how to tie Rambam with all-white tzitzit, which is very helpful in learning how to do the basic Yemenite tzitzit knot. (Please be sure to “Like” it if you find it useful.)
Most tzitzit tie-ers I know do not make a single integrated knot for the first and last chulyot; instead they simply make the first chulya by making a white chulya with one winding and then a blue chulya with two windings nudging up against the white. For the last chulya some people do that inversed, but I do prefer to do a combined chulyah. I hold both the white and the blue, bring them around once, and then do another winding of just blue. Then to keep the blue in place while I tighten the white, I developed a technique of switching fingers from left pinkie to right pinkie to keep the blue taut until I’m finished with the white.

I realize these instructions are a bit hard to follow without me illustrating. I’ve been meaning to make a video on this for quite a while. Even if you can understand what I’m saying, there are certain fine points that should be demonstrated to ensure you don’t run into any entanglements.

Oct 302013

We offer half dozen tzitzit tying and techelet tzitzit tying customs on all of our tallit and tallit katan products: Ashkenazi, Sephardic, Yemenite, Chabad, Arizal, Rambam, Vilna Gaon, Sefer HaChinuch, Tosefot and Raavad. However, one tying custom we do not list as a standard option is Ben Ish Chai tzitzit. Here in Jerusalem I have come across quite a number of Sephardim who follow this tzitzit tying custom.

We have tied tzitzit according to the Ben Ish Chai a few times when customers requested it.

In some ways, Ben Ish Chai tzitzit are similar to Chabad tzitzit. With Sephardic tying, you have single winding and loop the shamash through each, which creates a spiraling ridge. With Ben Ish Chai it’s the same, only the single windings are linked into groups.

When you tie Chabad, instead of doing single windings, the shamash loops through one, two or three windings. This creates a straight ridge. Chabad comes out with the windings snug up against one another (i.e. if you look on the side without the ridge it looks almost the same as Ashkenazi), whereas with Ben Ish Chai you see a bit of a gap from one group to the next.

Below is a video by Rabbi Daniel Cohen showing how to tie according to Terumat Hadeshen, which is essentially Ben Ish Chai tying with techelet. If you just pretend the tzitzit strings are all white you can get a good idea of how it looks. In fact, you can see the knots very distincly because they are blue. In the video he separates the chulyot a bit more than I’ve seen others do.

Oct 282013

Unlike other online tallit sellers, we offer a large range of tzitzit options, which can overwhelm our customers.

What is the difference in the choices between machine-made and hand-spun tzitzit, and thin and thick tzitzit? I’m confused…Also what is the difference between the Askenazi and Chabad tzitzit tying customs? Thanks…Steve R.

Types of Tzitzit

Machine-spun is slightly shorter than hand-spun, but for the most part the difference is a halachic matter. Machine-spun is considered a leniency that is widely relied on. Except for top-end traditional black-striped and white-striped tallits, just about every tallit sold today comes with machine-spun standard. If you would like to read about the issue, click here.

Also, if you want thick tzitzit you have to go with hand-spun, because machine-spun are always made thin.
Tzitzit Tying
Sephardic tzitzit

Sephardic tzitzit

Ashkenazi tying and Chabad tying look similar. Both have five double knots, with segments of 7, 8, 11 and 13 windings in between. The difference is that with Ashkenazi tying, you just do simple windings around the core (“gid“), whereas according to the Chabad tying custom, the windings are linked into subgroups of 1, 2 or 3 windings.

Once the tying is completed, the only visible difference is that Chabad tzitzit have a ridge running along one side of each segment.

Steve didn’t ask about Sephardic tzitzit, but it’s worth mentioning here. Sephardic tzitzit are tied by looping the shamash (the long string) through each of the windings individually. When done properly, this creates a ridge that spirals around the core.


Sep 162013

We receive about half a dozen inquiries a day. Often customers want to know how to track their orders, how to order a special type of tzitzit, which tchelet tzitzit to choose, how to tie tchelet, etc. Yesterday we received a very terse inquiry, obviously written by an earnest mother with an important tallit project on her hands.

want to weave a talit for son. can’t find the tchelet yarn. can u help?

Upon reading her question, I had a hunch Miriam has very noble intentions, but is not very clear on how to go about making a tallit or how to observe the mitzvah of tchelet tzitzit. So I spelled out the tallit-making process step-by-step:

The Torah tells us to attach strings to the corners of our garments, three white strings and one tchelet string on each corner.

That means you weave a tallit using whatever yarn you want. According to halacha and Jewish tradition, wool is preferable, but sometimes people use cotton or silk.

Tchelet TzitzitOnce the tallit is completed, you make a hole in each corner. With handwoven tallits, sometimes people don’t make a hole, but simply use a darning needle to insert the strings. Personally, I think it’s best to make a proper hole and reinforce it a bit.

The holes must be placed near the corners, but not too close. From each edge, measure out two inches and then make the corner.

Choosing and Tying Tchelet Tzitzit

Now that you’ve finished making the tallit, you’re ready to add the tzitzit, which is really the essence of the mitzvah. You might want to have another family member take part in the tallit-making process at this point. I think it’s very nice for a father or grandfather to tackle this big mitzvah. It should take no more than an hour, and it’s not very complicated. When the time comes, I would be glad to provide you with a written guide and a video on tzitzit tying.
Which tzitzit do you need? A good place to start is by taking a look at our Tzitzit Wizard. If you want to buy tchelet tzitzit, I would also recommend you read this page, which explains the difference between the two types of tchelet tzitzit available today.
Jul 142013

Children’s tzitzit come in several different varieties: traditional wool tallit katan, traditional cotton tallit katan, cotton with silkscreen designs for tykes, traditional wool children’s tallit, mesh tallit katan and undershirt-style tallit katan. Be aware that although strictly speaking the tzitzit are the strings and the garment they are attached to is called a “tallit katan,” people often refer to the garment with the tzitzit simply as tzitzit. Thus although tzitzit strings are invariably made of wool, when someone refers to “cotton tzitzit” what they really mean is a cotton tallit katan garment with wool tzitzit tied on.

Wool tzitzit on young children is relatively rare. Smaller sizes include 2, 3 and 4. They come either with black striping along the front bottom, or white striping.

Cotton Children’s Tzitzit

Children's Tzitzit - Undershirt Style

Undershirt-style tzitzit for boys

Far more common is the traditional cotton children’s tzitzit garment. One of the big advantages is that it is lightweight and inexpensive. Since children’s tzitzit often gets grimy, dingy, tangled, mangled and/or torn in a relatively short period of time (so would your tzitzit if you spent a large portion of your day on the floor), you can stock up on several and replace them fairly frequently, or keep several in use so that they last longer. The shipping weight is very low, so you shouldn’t have to pay much for shipping if you order them over the Internet.

Many people opt for mesh tzitzit during the summer, but personally I would not recommend this for halachic reasons. According to many opinions you cannot fulfill the mitzvah of tzitzit with a mesh garment if it has more air than fabric.

Another popular option is undershirt style children’s tzitzit. The big advantages are that you can cut down on the number of layers your son wears and since they stay in place better that traditional cotton tzitzit, your son stands a much better chance of keeping his shirt and tzitzit tidy and tucked in.

Cleaning Children’s Tzitzit

Keeping children’s tzitzit clean, especially those worn on a daily basis, can be quite a challenge. For a string of posts on the topic, with a wealth of original tips, including both do’s and don’ts, click here.

Sizing Tip

If your son is in between sizes, don’t be tempted to move up a size. It is unlikely to last for long and it looks much more tidy if it’s a bit small on him. If it’s too large the tallit katan will be likely to hang out constantly, and looking frumpy in tzitzit is not a mitzvah.

Unravelling Tzitzit

You may find that the knots on children’s tzitzit come loose and the tips of the tzitzit strings unravel. The knots come loose frequently when new. The first few days your child wears the tzitzit, keep checking that last knot to see if it has loosened. Once you tie it snug several times, it will start to stay tied much better. Another solution is to tie the last knot tight and then run a very thin stream of hot water through the faucet and let it run over that last knot for 10 seconds. I have tried this several times and gotten good results.

To keep the tips from unraveling, dab some clear nail polish on the ends of your child’s tzitzit.

Buy Children’s Tzitzit>>>